How Was Foot Binding Viewed During The Song Dynasty Quizlet?
- Philip Martin
Foot binding is thought to have originated in China during the time of the Song Dynasty. Its objective was to make the feet of young women look more diminutive so that they might more easily be married off. In essence, the toes of each foot would be curled beneath the sole of the foot, and the toe bones would be fractured.
How was foot binding viewed during the Song period?
Footbinding was a cultural practice that was prevalent in China from the 10th century until the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. It entailed binding the feet of women very tightly with bandages with the goal of altering their form for aesthetic reasons.
- Footbinding was often used on females between the ages of 4 and 6; however, some girls started the practice as young as 3, and others as late as 12.
- The girl’s feet were initially tied by either her mother, grandmother, or some elder female relative.
- Although few people were able to do it, the ultimate objective was to create each one three inches long, which represented the “golden lotus” foot of perfection.
Bandages were put around the four smaller toes after they were tucked beneath, dragged toward the heel, and tucked underneath. The bandages and the feet were cleansed after each time the bindings were removed from the feet. It was necessary to remove any areas of dead skin, blisters, dried blood, and pus.
Paralysis, gangrene, ulceration, and even death were all possible outcomes of the procedure, though death was extremely uncommon. The girl’s feet were bound together on a regular basis till the end of her life. Over the bandages, decorative shoes and leggings were worn, and the style of these items would change depending on the time of day and the event.
It is not known for certain where the practice first emerged. The majority of people believe that it originated from men’s romantic obsession with the form and point of court dancers’ feet when they were performing. The practice of footbinding originated in higher social levels, but it quickly became widespread.
- In households with little financial resources, which were unable to pay for the bandages or the reduced amount of labor associated with a crippled lady, footbinding was not performed on young girls until they reached adolescence.
- After a woman got married, the restrictions on her ability to work were lifted, and she went back to her previous job.
Footbinding was seen as a right of passage for young girls and was considered to prepare them for puberty, menstruation, and childbirth at the time. Footbinding is still practiced in some parts of the world today. In the same way that it restricted the mobility and power of females, maintained women’s subordination to men, and accentuated the distinctions between the sexes, it was a sign of a girl’s desire to submit to authority.
- In Chinese culture, which is patrilineal, it was a way to assure that a girl would be able to be married, and it was also a way for daughters, mothers, and grandparents to bond with one another.
- Footbinding was not only a mark of status, but it was also often believed to improve fertility due to the increased blood flow to the legs, hips, and vaginal regions that occurred as a result of the practice.
In 1662, during the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Kangxi (reigned 1661–1722) prohibited the practice of footbinding. However, in 1668, he reversed his decision since so many Chinese people continued to engage in the practice. Missionaries who went to China argued that the practice was harsh, and they also pointed out that the rest of the world looked down on it.
- As a result, opposition to the practice grew increasingly common once these two points were brought up.
- Footbinding was made illegal in 1912 following the Nationalist Revolution that took place in 1911.
- On the other hand, the practice did not stop completely until 1949, when the People’s Republic of China was established.
Footbinding has been likened to other practices that are intended to “perfect” the feminine form, such as wearing corsets or cutting or mutilating the female genitalia. By subscribing to Britannica Premium, you will have access to content that is not available elsewhere.
What was the purpose of foot binding quizlet?
As the Song Dynasty was a time when women’s authority began to diminish, the practice of foot binding was a custom that symbolized the inequality of women in ancient Chinese society. In addition, this practice was common during the Song Dynasty.
Why was foot binding used in the Tang and Song Dynasty?
Foot-binding was a procedure that was originally carried out in China during the Tang Dynasty on young girls. The goal of the practice was to prevent their feet from growing normally and to make their feet as little as possible. Although it was a painful and irreversible process, the end result was a desirable trait that was considered to have appealing qualities.
In which dynasty did the practice of foot binding probably originate?
Footbinding is said to have originated during the Shang dynasty (1700-1027 B.C.), when an empress who had a clubfoot is said to have ordered the practice. Footbinding went on to become a symbol of subjugation. However, historical sources place the practice to a later dynasty: An emperor was enthralled by a concubine who was a brilliant dancer who did a “lotus dance” while her feet were shackled to represent the shape of a new moon.
- Wang Lifen, who is 79 years old, watches over the child of her next-door neighbors.
- The little Wang was just seven years old when her mother first began tying her feet.
- Louisa Lim, NPR hide caption toggle caption Louisa Lim, NPR Wang Lifen, who is 79 years old, watches over the child of her next-door neighbors.
When Wang was only 7 years old, her mother began tying her feet with rope. Louisa Lim, NPR Wang Lifen can no longer recall the agony of having her bones broken, but she does acknowledge that there are moments when the pain in her feet is so severe that she is unable to even put them down on the ground.
Louisa Lim, NPR hide caption toggle caption Louisa Lim, NPR Wang Lifen can no longer recall the agony of having her bones broken, but she does acknowledge that there are moments when the pain in her feet is so severe that she is unable to even put them down on the ground. Louisa Lim, NPR Most women are familiar with the idea that they must endure pain in order to achieve beauty since so many of them have coloured, plucked, or shaved their hair, forced their feet into excruciating high heels, or even had surgical enhancement of various portions of their anatomy.
Millions of Chinese ladies went even farther by tying their feet together in the hopes of transforming them into the highly sought “three-inch golden lotuses.” Footbinding was outlawed for the first time in 1912, yet some people continued to do it behind closed doors.
- Some of the last people to have survived this horrific practice may still be found in the village of Liuyicun, which is located in the province of Yunnan in Southern China.
- When Wang Lifen was just seven years old, her mother began binding her feet.
- This consisted of fracturing her toes and then bandaging them below the soles of her feet.
After the passing of her mother, Wang continued on, eventually shattering the arch in her own foot in an effort to bring her toes and heel closer together. At the age of 79, Wang has completely blocked out the agony. “Young Bones Are Soft,” a proverb says.
“I was able to manage my own feet in a more gentle manner till the bones were fractured since I tied them myself. Young bones are more brittle and more readily broken than older ones “she explains. At that time, having one’s feet shackled was considered a sign of social rank and was the only way for a woman to marry into a wealthy family.
In the instance of Wang, her husband’s parents had requested that the matchmaker locate their son a wife who had little feet. After the wedding, when she had finally seen her husband for the first time, she learned that he was an opium addict. Prior to that, she had no idea that he had a drug problem.
She is a relic from another era because her existence includes having her feet shackled and having a spouse who is an opium addict. According to author Yang Yang, who has published a book about these ladies, she views them in this light. “These ladies were ostracized by two periods,” Yang argues. “Footbinding was already illegal when they were young, so they had to do it in secret in order to keep it from their parents.
Alterations were made to the industrial process when the Communist period began. They were forced to work in agriculture, yet they were rejected once again by their peers.” A Dwindling Few Old women may be seen conversing and sitting outside of the temple in Liuyicun.
Some of them are putting their shriveled feet up in the sunlight. In this community, there were still 300 women who had their feet shackled when we visited it seven years ago. But a great many of them have passed away. The village’s prior riches, from its successful textile sector, was the reason every family shackled their daughters’ feet.
And they kept on long after footbinding was abolished in 1912. Zhou Guizhen recalls being able to deceive the officials from the government. Zhou explains that when people came to view their feet, his mother bandaged his feet and put large shoes on them.
- When people came to see our feet,” Zhou continues.
- When the auditors arrived, we conned them into believing that I had particularly large feet.
- Zhou, who is now 86 years old and frail, has a wistful laugh despite his advanced age.
- She walks around in blue silk shoes embroidered with phoenixes as she ponders the ways in which the world has progressed since she was a child.
Despite having been born into a wealthy family and having married into an even more wealthy family, the Communists took all of her property. A Regretful Decision Now she opens the door to her gloomy and run-down one-room cottage that has dirt flooring and paper-lattice windows that the brisk wind howls through.
Since she was a youngster, her upbringing has completely flipped her values upside down. She claims that at the time in question, having one’s feet shackled was a sign of social status. They are become a symbol of the subordination of women. “I regret restricting my feet,” Zhou says. “I am unable to dance because I lack the coordination required.
I regret it a much. However, during that historical period, no one would marry you if you didn’t have your feet bound.” These “golden lotuses” were evidence of a foot fetish on a national scale, with crippled feet operating as another erogenous zone, the most taboo of them all.
This was the most forbidden of the erogenous zones. However, the truth was far more mundane for author Yang Yang, whose mother suffered from the condition of having her feet tied. “The bandages that ladies used for footbinding were roughly 10 feet long, so it was difficult for them to bathe their feet,” explains Yang.
“The practice of footbinding is no longer practiced in the United States.” “They washed their clothes once every two weeks, thus the environment was really foul-smelling. But when I was a child, I had a lot of freedom since my mother’s feet were shackled so she couldn’t run as quickly as she needed to in order to catch me and punish me when I misbehaved.” These ladies have managed to survive in spite of the limitations they have imposed upon themselves.
- Wang watches for her neighbors’ kid on a regular basis, and she routinely carries the chubby child who weighs 20 pounds on her back as she goes about her daily errands.
- It’s obvious that Wang takes pride in her small feet since she keeps cocking her head to the side as she examines her teeny-tiny shoes.
Lingering Pride She claims that there is not a single other lady in Liuyicun who has feet that are the same size as hers and could wear her shoes. “Even if they want to, people won’t be able to see shackled feet once my generation has passed away,” said the person.
- These women even earned popularity of a sort, founding a bound-feet disco dance ensemble which toured the region.
- Zhou used to be the most talented dancer in the company, but now she is too old to perform.
- When they were younger, their feet were tied, which limited their mobility and forced them to stay close to their houses.
This public show is a far cry from those days. However, the local press was quite critical of the dancing company, saying that they were engaging in exploitative behavior and putting on freak exhibitions. These women are victims of history once again, and they live in a society that deems their predicament to be an uncomfortable reminder of the recent violence that it has perpetrated against women.
How did foot binding affect women’s roles in society?
Foot Binding: The Effects on Society It was hard to put an end to the practice of foot binding once it had been ingrained in the culture. The practice of binding one’s feet became the standard, whereas untied feet were considered bizarre, vulgar, and unattractive.
- It was never a consideration to release their daughters’ feet from their bindings, despite the fact that mothers obviously detested inflicting suffering on their daughters.
- Because if a mother did not tie her daughter’s feet, her daughter would be the target of mockery from other women, and she would almost certainly never be successful in snagging a husband.
It was more essential to males that a young woman’s feet were tiny and properly curved than that she had a high social rank, therefore a girl may be saved from a life of abject poverty provided she had such feet. Foot binding was another factor that contributed to men’s historical preeminence over women.
- Because it was difficult for a woman to walk with bound feet – the furthest she could walk was between 4.8 and 6.4 kilometers – Chinese women never strayed far from home and did not have much contact with people from other communities outside of their villages.
- The greatest distance a woman could walk was between 3 and 4 miles (4.8 to 6.4 kilometers).
As a result, they were more traditional and more inclined to submit to the authority of their husbands. Their limited mobility made it practically impossible for them to have relationships outside of their marriages or to flee the house to avoid being beaten by their husbands when they were dissatisfied.
- During the Song dynasty (960-1279), the practice of foot binding grew more commonplace, and as a result, educational opportunities for women were severely restricted, and independent property rights were made illegal.
- In a more positive light, the practice of foot binding resulted in the formation of strong intergenerational relationships among the women.
This is because the women were the ones who did all of the binding and were also the ones who had their feet tied. The women took great pride in their little feet. They met together on a regular basis to sew their shoes, which were a significant part of their design statement.
Beyond the realm of interpersonal connections, foot binding significantly influenced the architecture of China. Because it was so challenging for Chinese women to navigate staircases, the culture shifted to only building residences with only one level. Because women were required to walk with their arms supported by walls or railings, the streets and alleys were extremely congested and small.
Surprisingly, the practice of foot binding also had a role in the colonization of the planet. The Chinese chose not to participate in the global exploration and colonization that was taking place at the same time in the Western world. Their women were unable to move about freely or do the strenuous manual labor that was required while settling a new nation, and their men were unwilling to part with their wives because of this.
What contributed to the decline and end of foot binding?
It is commonly believed that the revival of Confucianism as neo-Confucianism during the Song dynasty was the cause of the decline in the status of women during that time period. This neo-Confucianism, it is argued, not only encouraged the seclusion of women and the cult of widow chastity, but it also contributed to the development of patriarchal social structures.
How does the Chinese practice of foot binding demonstrate the tightening of patriarchy in the Song Dynasty?
A painful traditional Chinese procedure that was common during the Song Dynasty and entailed wrapping the feet of young girls so tightly that the bones in their feet were sometimes broken and the girls experienced excruciating agony in order to make their feet look smaller and more feminine. Foot binding was a symbol of the Song Dynasty’s increasing adherence to patriarchal norms.
Why did the Chinese build ships with separate watertight compartments?
Why did the Chinese design their ships to include watertight compartments that were completely independent from one another? So that even if there was a hole in one section, the ship wouldn’t go down.
When did foot binding became illegal?
8. Is the practice of tying the feet still common in modern times? After foot binding was made illegal in 1912, attitudes began to shift; nonetheless, there are still some individuals who covertly tie their feet. These people live primarily in rural areas in the provinces of Shandong and Yunnan.
How and why did the Practise of foot binding begin?
Wikimedia Commons During the course of almost 10 centuries, several generations of Chinese women were subjected to a process in which, when they were young, their feet were deliberately shattered and molded in such a way that they resembled hooves. This practice was carried on from generation to generation.
- The practice, which is also known as foot binding, ultimately came to represent China’s backwardness, serving as a remnant from the country’s distant past.
- However, despite the efforts of those who advocated for change, the practice of foot binding continued far into the 20th century.
- Pearl Buck, whose book The Good Earth is widely considered to be one of the most influential books ever written about China, wrote in the January 1923 issue of The Atlantic about an encounter she had with a young woman who had recently made the decision to unbind her feet in order to conform to the most recent fashion: Yesterday, she arrived wearing a beautiful blue satin that had a more on-trend shape than I had ever seen before.
Her feet were unbound and she wore little, clumpy, square black-leather shoes from another country. She appeared to be rather pleased with them, since they had steel taps on the heels and had the appearance of shoes that would be worn by a really tough young American boy.
- They protruded from her lovely brocaded skirt in the most peculiar manner.
- After we had introduced ourselves to one another and had the first drink of our tea, she seemed to be paying so close attention to her footwear that I felt compelled to make a remark about the peculiar shoes she was wearing.
- She said, “It is the most current trend,” expressing utter contentment with what she had said.
“You are aware, of course, that the truly trendy females in large cities such as Beijing and Shanghai no longer bind their feet. These cities include Peking and Shanghai. At the boarding school, they don’t either; so, when I returned home, I sobbed for three days straight without eating, until finally, for the sake of peace, they untied my feet so that I may wear these lovely shoes from the United States.
My feet aren’t the right size yet, so I tuck cotton into the toes of my shoes.” What precisely is meant by the term “bound feet,” and how did it come to be such an ingrained part of the culture of China? I spoke with Wang Ping, who is a professor of English and Creative Writing at Macalaster College as well as the author of Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China, a history of the practice published in 2002.
I did this so that I could obtain some further information. This is an edited transcript of our chat, which can be found below: When, and for what reason, was the practice of foot binding first performed? In the 10th century, during the time of the Five Dynasties and Ten States, the very first documented instance of binding took place.
- The tale goes that one emperor had a beloved concubine who was a dancer and she created a golden stage in the shape of a lotus flower for the emperor to perform on.
- The practice grew quite popular after she tied her feet into a hoof-like form and danced on the lotus; after all, she was the emperor’s favorite concubine, and the other concubines strove to mimic her in order to obtain the favor of the emperor.
Foot binding began in China’s royal court and quickly expanded throughout the country, starting in the southern region of the country and eventually making its way to the country’s northern regions. Foot binding had become considerably more common by the 12th century, and by the early Qing Dynasty (around the middle of the 17th century), any female who desired to marry had to have her feet tied in order to do so.
- Women who worked in fishing were the only ones who did not bind their feet since they needed to have regular feet in order to maintain their balance on boats.
- Other than that, the only individuals who did not bind their feet were extremely impoverished people of the Hakka ethnic group.
- When did young ladies typically get their feet bound? What exactly did the drill consist of? Between the ages of four and six, young women would have their feet bound.
If they were any younger, the girls would be unable to withstand the pain, and if they were any older than six, their feet would have already become too enormous. Between the ages of four and six was the sweet spot because you were able to reason with the girls and assist them in coping with the discomfort.
Foot binding would take place within the context of a ceremonial event, together with other practices that were intended to ward off misfortune. The operation consisted of bending the girls’ toes below the sole of their feet and wrapping their feet with very long ribbons all the way up to their ankles.
The general strategy consisted of repeatedly breaking the foot anytime it became excessively huge, a process that typically took between two and three years to complete. Following that, the girl’s feet would be tied for the remainder of her life. The females walked in an unusual manner, almost as if they had hooves as a natural consequence of their condition.
- And in order for them to be able to move around more easily, women who had their feet bound developed strong muscles in their hips, thighs, and buttocks.
- In fact, these characteristics were regarded as physically attractive by the Chinese men of the era because they allowed the women to move around more easily.
When did people stop using the practice of tying their feet? Around the time when the Qing Dynasty was coming to an end in China in the 19th century, Western nations began a process of de facto colonization of the country, and many individuals from the West began to relocate there.
This occurred at the same time as the peak of foot binding, which coincided with the practice’s most widespread adoption. As a result, a significant number of women in the West, particularly those who were married to Christian missionaries, became ardent opponents of the practice. These women published pamphlets and even opened shelters to offer assistance to victims of the practice.
Around the same time, Chinese intellectuals who had studied in other countries, most notably Europe and North America, returned to China and voiced their support for the abolition of the death penalty. Therefore, by the time that Pearl Buck started writing in 1923, after the Qing Dynasty had been overthrown, the behavior had gone out of style.
This rapid shift in trend had an unexpected and unintended consequence: a large number of women who had their feet tied in order to become eligible for marriage were shocked to discover that their husbands had left them because the practice of foot binding was no longer considered to be chic. Worse, in larger towns, some individuals would find ladies with tied feet and cut off their bindings.
These women would never, ever reveal their naked feet to anybody, not even their husbands, because it was such a humiliating experience for them to have their bindings ripped off. The procedure, which for them started with a lot of anguish and tears, ultimately concluded with a lot of pain and tears as well.
- By the time Mao Zedong assumed control of China in 1949, foot binding had all but disappeared from the country, with the exception of some extremely isolated and hilly regions.
- Has there been any resistance from traditionalists in favor of the practice of foot binding? Definitely.
- In Shanghai, there were multiple arguments between proponents of foot binding and proponents of natural feet; both men and women were present at these debates.
The debates were attended by a large number of people. Those who were in favor of foot binding initially came out on top in these arguments, but in the end, those who were against it were victorious. One of the reasons was that unbound ladies would show off their lovely naked feet, which stood in sharp contrast to the distressing and unattractive pictures of bound feet, which only appeared attractive when they were covered with artisan-crafted embroidered shoes.
- Do any persons who were born with their feet shackled still live today? People who had their feet tied are quite uncommon in today’s society, but I’ve heard from a few people who saw some elderly women in Guangxi Province in southwest China who had their feet bound.
- On the other hand, only recently, a man from the West contacted me and inquired as to whether or not I would be ready to tie his feet for him.
What did you say to him, exactly? “I’m sorry, but that’s not something I do.”
Who did not have their feet bound because they were needed to work in the fields?
Foot binding is said to have originated during the Shang dynasty. According to some accounts, the practice of foot binding first appeared during the Tang dynasty. Whenever it first began, it has always been a savage activity. Young girls, often between the ages of 5 and 7, had their toes tucked beneath their feet, and then long strips of fabric were wrapped around their feet to keep their toes in place.
- The point of the toes and the back of the heel really made contact with one another.
- This resulted in the breaking of the bones in their feet, which caused a great deal of suffering.
- Their feet would continue to be shattered throughout the course of the subsequent several years, right up to the point where the ideal form was obtained.
The end result was a foot that appeared to be quite little, measuring approximately three to four inches in length, and having a very prominent arch. The procedure caused a great deal of agony. As a direct consequence of this, ladies who had their feet tied had a difficult time walking.
- At first, only the women who served in royal court were subjected to having their feet tied.
- Due to the fact that they were required to labor in the fields, peasant women were spared from being tortured.
- Those who had their feet bound disguised the bindings by covering them with many layers of stockings and spraying themselves with perfume.
Additionally, their garments were long enough to cover their feet completely. Foot binding was considered an indication of attractiveness and a necessary step before getting married. When a girl reached the age when she might marry, the mothers of males who were also of marriageable age would visit her house to measure the circumference of her feet.
- If a woman wanted to marry into a wealthy family, she needed to have little feet.
- The practice of tying the feet persisted for thousands of years.
- In these modern times, it wasn’t until the early 1900s that it was ultimately criminalized.
- Despite this, there were still those who engaged in the practice of foot binding.
There are still ladies living who, as children, were forced to have their feet shackled. Women in Ancient China Ancient Chinese Culture and Everyday Life
Is foot binding still practiced in China?
The most recent photography project undertaken by Jo Farrell had its start, rather by accident, in the trunk of a taxi. Her life’s work has been dedicated to the documentation of vanishing cultural traditions, and in 2005, she was having a conversation with a taxi driver in Shanghai when the topic of foot binding came up.
Farrell recalls that the subject brought up the fact that his grandmother had chained her feet. “The vast majority of persons I asked said that because it was such an ancient custom, there were no women remaining. Zang Yun Ying was waiting for me when I arrived in the village that the cab driver’s grandmother called home in the Shandong province.
She is the first lady to participate in my initiative.” The subsequent nine years were spent traveling across China in search of the last people who had survived the practice of foot binding. She only discovered fifty different ladies. The majority of them had broken free of their restraints, but five of them were still totally tied and hidden.
- All of them originated from poor rural communities in the provinces of Yunnan and Shandong.
- The oldest person, Zhang Yun Ying, lived to be 103 years old.
- Living History: Bound Feet Women of China is a photobook by Farrell that features up-close pictures of women who were born with severe deformities as a result of having their feet bound.
After over a decade and a half of use, the practice of foot binding was finally criminalized in China 103 years ago. However, the last factory that produced “lotus shoes” — those triangular embroidered platforms that were intended to flaunt women’s little pointed feet – shut down only six years ago.
In the 10th century, during the reign of Emperor Li Yu, the practice of taping a woman’s toes into the shape of a triangle became popular as a means of giving the impression that the wearer had the ideal “lotus feet.” The skin was loosened by beating the feet, then casting them in a mixture of herbs and oils, and finally securing them in lotus shoes.
After it was outlawed, foot binding became into a social taboo. In 1950, Chairman Mao issued an edict instructing anti-foot-binding inspectors to publicly disgrace any tied women they discovered. From her apartment in Hong Kong, where she is currently residing, Farrell explains to me that “it was regarded an archaic custom that did not reflect contemporary China and should be discontinued.” “Their shackling would be displayed for everyone to see in the windows so that others may make fun of them.” When most women were seven years old, they were bound.
- According to Farrell, “the first year is particularly torturous because the girls were pushed to walk until their toes would break beneath their weight.” This was a requirement throughout the first year of the program.
- Following that, the toes went numb, and today, fifty or sixty years later, they do not have any discomfort in their feet.
It’s all quite numb.” Farrell maintains that the purpose of her picture series is not to create a sensation, but rather to enlighten us about an obscure tradition. She freely confesses that she was taken aback by her own emotions when she saw the shackled feet up close.
How were feet bound in China?
Foot binding is a practice that has been practiced on young women in China for many years. This practice is exceedingly painful and can result in permanent disability. Their feet were bound firmly with cloth strips, with the toes bent down beneath the sole of the foot, and the foot was tied front-to-back so that it developed into an exaggerated high curve.
- Their feet were also tied together front-to-back so that the grew into an exaggerated high curve.
- The perfect length for an adult woman’s foot would be between between three and four inches.
- Lotus feet” was the name given to these abnormally small and twisted feet.
- The trend of binding one’s feet originated in the more affluent segments of Han Chinese culture, but it quickly expanded across the rest of the population, with the exception of the most disadvantaged households.
It was a sign of great wealth for a family to be able to keep their daughter from having to work in the fields if they had a daughter who had her feet bound. Women who had their feet bound were unable to walk well enough to perform any kind of labor that required standing for an extended period of time.
- Girls who had their toes tied into a lotus shape, often known as “lotus feet,” had a better chance of marrying well.
- This was both because bound feet were regarded lovely and because they were an indication of relative affluence.
- Because of this, even some agricultural families that could not truly afford to lose a child’s work would bound their oldest daughters’ feet in the aim of attracting wealthy spouses.
This was done in order to increase the chances of the daughters marrying wealthy men.
Why was foot binding banned?
Foot binding may have been adopted across the nation of China for over a thousand years, but like with other traditions such as these that involved tactics of agony and torment, they must inevitably come to an end. Opposition against the practice of foot binding originally arose during the Manchu era in China.
- The Manchus reigned over China under the Qing Dynasty between the years of 1644 and 1911.
- They did not favor the customs of foot tying and wished to eradicate the practice.
- These initiatives were overturned by the people and so failed, nevertheless, the Manchus efforts were not in vain as they were able to pave the path for others who finally outlawed the practice totally.
the tradition of foot binding began to turn from a symbol of beauty to one of agony, tyranny and control. The world began to see foot binding as something that was an intrinsic part of the ancient China and became a ritual that was deemed as primitive.
In the year 1645, the Shunshi emperor issued a decree forbidding foot binding, but, this emperor’s successor, Kangxi, repealed the order based on the idea that foot binding was a habit that was strongly ingrained in Chinese traditions and customs had to be canceled by imperial dissolution. Societies in Shanghai that were against foot binding began to organize during 1895 and expanded fast in numbers and spread across the country.
These anti-foot binding groups delivered their ideas through three different techniques. Firstly, they established a contemporary campaign to educate the people of China about how the rest of the world did not adhere to the customs of foot binding, making China susceptible to an international mockery, losing their dignity on a global scale (honour was highly important to the Chinese) (honour was very important to the Chinese).
Secondly, this education effort highlighted and discussed the advantages of natural feet which allowed women to work, travel, and also avoided all of the agony and health hazards connected with foot binding – to mention a few. They then discussed the downsides of foot binding, how it severely impacted women and the Chinse culture as a whole.
Lastly, these organizations developed extra groups that supported natural foot. Members of these communities would not allow for their daughters to bind their feet and would only urge the marriage of their sons to women whose feet were not tied. The aforementioned approaches demonstrated remarkable success in establishing the nationalist movement which served to kindle the flame that eventually brought foot binding to an end in the year 1911, during the revolution of Sun Yat Sen, abolishing a custom that had endured for over a century.
What is foot binding and why was it done?
Foot binding, or footbinding, was the Chinese habit of breaking and severely binding the feet of young females in order to modify their shape and size. Feet changed by footbinding were known as lotus feet, and the shoes constructed for these feet were known as lotus shoes.