How Was Foot Binding Viewed During The Song Dynasty Quizlet?
- Philip Martin
Foot binding is thought to have originated in China during the time of the Song Dynasty. Its objective was to make the feet of young women look more diminutive so that they might more easily be married off. In essence, the toes of each foot would be curled beneath the sole of the foot, and the toe bones would be fractured.
What major political change was made by the founder of the Song Dynasty?
What was the most important political shift that the first ruler of the Song dynasty brought about? Every high-ranking military official was either put to death or banished. The bureaucrats were given the responsibility of exercising political power.
Why might Pure Land Buddhism have appealed to ordinary people quizlet?
Why do you think Pure Land Buddhism was so popular among the general populace? It stated that all one needed for salvation was a straightforward belief in Buddha. It advocated for the establishment of a new social order in order to ameliorate the plight of the peasantry. It integrated a great many facets of the indigenous religion of Japan.
Who banned foot binding in China?
Footbinding: From a Symbol of Status to a Form of Subjugation – March 19, 2007, 12:37 AM Eastern Time Around the years 1900 and 1920, this photograph captures a group of wealthy Chinese women posing with their feet shackled. Underwood & Underwood/Corbis display / hide captions toggle displays Underwood & Underwood/Corbis Around the years 1900 and 1920, this photograph captures a group of wealthy Chinese women posing with their feet shackled.
Underwood & Underwood/Corbis According to one urban myth, the practice of footbinding may be traced all the way back to the Shang era (1700-1027 B.C.). Because she was born with a clubfoot, the Shang Empress insisted that all court officials be required to have their feet bound. However, according to historical documents originating from China’s Song dynasty (960-1279 A.D.), the practice of footbinding originated during the reign of Li Yu, who reigned over a section of China between the years 961 and 975.
It is reported that one of his concubines, Yao Niang, a brilliant dancer who did a “lotus dance” while her feet were shackled to represent the shape of a new moon, won his love. Footbinding gained increased popularity during the course of following dynasties, and the practice eventually moved beyond court circles to the rich.
Young women in rural areas eventually came to the realization that tying their feet may be their ticket to higher income and social mobility, and this prompted the practice to spread from urban areas to rural areas. In 1644, when the Manchu nobles took control of the government, they attempted to outlaw the practice, but they were not very successful.
In the year 1874, a British clergyman in Shanghai established the very first anti-footbinding group in the city. However, the practice was not made illegal until 1912, long after the Qing empire had been overthrown by a revolution. This was the year when the practice was finally made illegal.
- Those who continued to tie their feet after 1915 were subject to the ability of government inspectors to impose fines against them.
- But despite these regulations, footbinding is still practiced in a number of different regions across the country.
- Footbinding was outlawed by communist authorities in 1949, exactly one year after they took power and assumed control of the government.
In the 19th century, between forty and fifty percent of Chinese women were believed to have had their feet bound, as stated by the American author William Rossi, who penned the book The Sex Life of the Foot and Shoe. The percentage was quite close to one hundred for those in higher social strata.
- According to some estimates, as many as 2 billion Chinese women fractured or chained their feet in an effort to achieve this excruciatingly flawless ideal of physical perfection.
- According to the author Yang Yang, ladies with little feet were considered to be a status symbol and would convey respect to the entire clan simply by the way they looked.
“Some married ladies with shackled feet would even wake up in the middle of the night to start their toilette, simply to guarantee that they would look well in the daylight,” he recalls. “This was done to ensure that they would appear good when they were out in public.” This custom was allowed to continue for such a long time in Liuyicun as a result of the village’s thriving economy as well as the residents’ desire to display outward signs of affluence, such as girls who had their feet tied.
- Footbinding is believed by some academics to have contributed to a deeper level of female subjugation because it made women more reliant on their men folk, restricted their movements, and forced them to maintain their chastity.
- This is because women with bound feet were physically unable to travel far from their homes.
As a matter of fact, the “three-inch golden lotuses” were considered to be the utmost erogenous zone throughout the Qing era. Pornographic publications written during this time period included 48 various techniques to play with women’s tied feet. There was little room for discretion on the part of those poor ladies who were forced to pay the ultimate price for beauty.
Wang Lifen, a native of Liuyicun who is now 79 years old, recalls her perspective as a youngster and says, “Even though I didn’t want it, everyone in the hamlet insisted that I tie my feet up, so I did. So I did.” And Zhou Guizhen, who is 86 years old, explains, “During that time, everyone had their feet tied.
If you didn’t, the only person you could marry would be a member of a tribe that belonged to an ethnic minority.” According to Yang Yang, these ladies deformed their feet in order to ensure a better future for themselves; yet, this deed eventually doomed them to lives that were full with tragedy.
- The majority of the bound-foot women in Liuyicun were compelled to engage in strenuous manual labor in the late 1950s.
- These women were made to excavate reservoirs, for example, which was terrible for any woman, but especially so for those with abnormally small and deformed feet.
- Due to the fact that they were frequently unable to meet their production goals at work or trek into the mountains to harvest vegetables and fruit like the moms of other children, their families also suffered from a lack of food.
According to Yang, “their little feet doomed them to their sad destinies.”
How did China stop foot binding?
It’s possible that foot binding has been practiced in China for over a thousand years, but much like the majority of other painful and torturous practices that have been passed down through the generations, it’s time for this practice to finally die out.
During the time when the Manchus ruled China, the first voices of dissent against the practice of foot binding were heard. During the Qing Dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1911, the Manchu people held the position of ruler over China. They were opposed to the traditional practices of foot binding and desired to see an end to the procedure.
However, the efforts of the Manchus were not in futile since they were able to pave the way for others who finally succeeded in putting an end to the practice for good. These endeavors failed because they were rejected by the general people. The act of tying one’s feet started to be seen more and more as one of cruelty, tyranny, and control, rather than as a symbol of beauty.
Foot binding grew to be seen as an inseparable component of traditional Chinese culture and evolved into a practice that was considered to be of savage origin by the rest of the world. In the year 1645, the Shunshi emperor issued a mandate that banned the practice of foot binding. However, this emperor’s successor, Kangxi, revoked the ban due to the fact that foot binding was a custom that was deeply ingrained in Chinese traditions, and customs had to be revoked through the process of imperial dissolution.
In the year 1895, the first anti-foot binding societies emerged in Shanghai. These societies had explosive population growth and quickly expanded across the rest of the country. These civilizations who opposed the practice of foot binding disseminated their beliefs using one of three distinct approaches.
To begin, they organized a contemporary campaign to inform the people of China about how the rest of the world did not participate in the customs of foot binding, which made China the target of ridicule on a worldwide scale and caused them to suffer a loss of honor on a national level (honour was very important to the Chinese).
Second, this education campaign identified and emphasized the benefits of natural feet, such as the ability for women to work and travel, as well as the elimination of all the discomfort and health hazards connected with foot binding. They went on to discuss the drawbacks of foot binding, including how it had a negative effect not just on women but also on Chinese society as a whole.
- Last but not least, these associations gave rise to further organizations that advocated for natural foot.
- The members of these communities would not permit their daughters to have their feet tied and would only encourage their sons to marry women whose feet were not bound.
- In other words, the members of these organizations would not allow their daughters to have bound feet.
In 1911, during the revolution led by Sun Yat Sen, the practice of foot binding was finally put to rest, putting an end to a tradition that had been practiced for more than a millennium. The aforementioned strategies were tremendously successful in the formation of the nationalist revolution, which served as the spark that served to ignite the flame that finally brought foot binding to an end.
Do they still do foot binding in China?
The most recent photography project undertaken by Jo Farrell had its start, rather by accident, in the trunk of a taxi. Her life’s work has been dedicated to the documentation of vanishing cultural traditions, and in 2005, she was having a conversation with a taxi driver in Shanghai when the topic of foot binding came up.
- Farrell recalls that the subject brought up the fact that his grandmother had chained her feet.
- The vast majority of persons I asked said that because it was such an ancient custom, there were no women remaining.
- Zang Yun Ying was waiting for me when I arrived in the village that the cab driver’s grandmother called home in the Shandong province.
She is the first lady to participate in my initiative.” The subsequent nine years were spent traveling across China in search of the last people who had survived the practice of foot binding. She only discovered fifty different ladies. The majority of them had broken free of their restraints, but five of them were still totally tied and hidden.
All of them originated from poor rural communities in the provinces of Yunnan and Shandong. The oldest person, Zhang Yun Ying, lived to be 103 years old. The photobook titled “Living History: Bound Feet Women of China” by Farrell has images taken up close that show the horrible disfigurement that these women endured.
After over a decade and a half of use, the practice of foot binding was finally criminalized in China 103 years ago. However, the last factory that produced “lotus shoes” — those triangular embroidered platforms that were intended to flaunt women’s little pointed feet – shut down only six years ago.
In the 10th century, during the reign of Emperor Li Yu, the practice of taping a woman’s toes into the shape of a triangle became popular as a means of giving the impression that the wearer had the ideal “lotus feet.” The skin was loosened by beating the feet, then casting them in a mixture of herbs and oils, and finally securing them in lotus shoes.
After it was outlawed, foot binding became into a social taboo. In 1950, Chairman Mao issued an edict instructing anti-foot-binding inspectors to publicly disgrace any tied women they discovered. From her apartment in Hong Kong, where she is currently residing, Farrell explains to me that “it was regarded an archaic custom that did not reflect contemporary China and should be discontinued.” “Their shackling would be displayed for everyone to see in the windows so that others may make fun of them.” When most women were seven years old, they were bound.
According to Farrell, “the first year is particularly torturous because the girls were pushed to walk until their toes would break beneath their weight.” This was a requirement throughout the first year of the program. “Following that, the toes went numb, and today, fifty or sixty years later, they do not have any discomfort in their feet.
It’s all quite numb.” Farrell maintains that the purpose of her picture series is not to create a sensation, but rather to enlighten us about an obscure tradition. She freely confesses that she was taken aback by her own emotions when she saw the shackled feet up close.